The World’s Greatest Novels

(actualisé le ) by Ray

There are no doubt some novels missing from this compendium - albeit not very many, in my humble opinion (the jury is still out on the works of Balzac, Stendhal, Flaubert, and Zola) - but there can be no doubt that these 73 masterpieces from Albania, Austria (3), China, the Czech Republic, Egypt (2), England (15), France (11), Germany (6), Holland, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan (3), Norway, Peru (2), Poland, Portugal, Russia (9), Scotland, Spain, Sweden and the U.S.A (9) have all scaled the very highest heights of literary achievement in the novel form.

The works that would incontestably have to be considered for selection for a Top Tennish short list have been marked with an *.


date of last update: August 20, 2014.


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Don Quixote* by Miguel de Cervantes (1605) [1]

This masterpiece will never cease to impress and to awe. Published in 1605, way before anything of similar stature was produced elsewhere in Europe (but then the first Japanese novel, The Genji Monagatari, had been written 600 years earlier!), this rollicking tale of a man driven to the edge of folly by his passion for books (readers, beware!) - a profound theme indeed, investigated more recently by Canetti (Auto da Fe) and Saramago (All The Names) with great effect - and his immersion in the dream-world they project (video gamers, beware!) to go out into the wild world out there to combat its injustices (social reformers, beware!) and win the heart of his idealized Dulcina (lovers, beware!) is a picaresque farce that is transformed into a universal epic by the forceful presence not to say omnipresence of his resourceful equerry and general factotum Sancho Panza, who actually ends up achieving his dream of acquiring a duchy of his own with surprising results (power-seekers beware!) and who provides the realistic and everyman element that combines with Don Quixote’s world of the imagination and of noble knights and ladies to make this inseparable pair so memorable, so humane and so universal.

The Adventurous Simplicissimus by Hans Jacob Christoffel von Grimmelshausen (1668) [2]

The devastating Thirty Years War seen by the first giant of German literature, a baroque monument.

Tom Jones by Henry Fielding (1749) [3]

Exploding with life and vigour and humour and drive, very cosmopolitan with an engaging young hero wandering all over 18th Century Europe learning the ways of the world, full of snappy dialogues, nicely written but unpretentious, this wonderful big book epitomizes the spirit of that momentous century in a unique way.

Tristam Shandy* by Laurence Sterne (1752) [4]

This effervescent brimming-over-with-joy-of-life novel in the form of a fictional autobiography goes shooting off in every which way as one thought leads to another, so that it takes the verbose but quite spell-bindingly fascinating and funny author a whole 80 pages to bring his life story (that starts naturally enough but nevertheless very originally with the hilarious account of the moment of his conception) up to the moment of his birth! This great book was written in the early days of the English novel and it was perhaps the lack of an established frame of reference for the novel form that encouraged Sterne to adopt such a constraint-free form and his meandering, ebullient style that seems to just explode out of these pages. The hero and his entourage never go further than 2 miles or so from their comfortable Sussex village and yet this small corner of the Earth by the magic of the author’s pen becomes a world unto itself that epitomizes the quintessence of the human experience.

Sterne’s easy prose seems to effortlessly flow on and on, expanding and twisting and turning with amazing agility to transmit in a real-time stream the impulsive onslaught of thoughts and lovingly-detailed recollections of his personages. Among the novel’s many joys is probably the funniest single chapter I have ever read in my life, the one so appropriately entitled "Zounds!".

A masterpiece, by one of the greatest masters of the English language of all time.

The Sorrows of Young Werther by Johann Wolfgang Goethe (1774) [5]

The original Bildungsroman (novel of learning) about a young man’s initiation to life - the book that put Goethe on the map and whose sensitive, soulful, searching and suicidal hero was a founding figure for the Romantic movement throughout Europe.

The Manuscript Found in Saragossa by Jean Potocki (1814) [6]

This story within a story within a story, written in French by a Polish nobleman, explorer, archaeologist, diplomat, linguist and historian at the beginning of the 19th Century, purports to be a manuscript, discovered by a French officer in Spain during the Napoleonic Wars there, which recounts the bizarre encounters of a Spanish officer during a mission in the barren Sierra Morena mountains where he encounters, for starters, a couple of mysterious and voluptuous young sisters who, after proposing imaginable delights and unimaginable treasures (on certain terms) recount their own encounters, and so on.

The book abounds in an extravagant variety of semi-fantastical figures, including devils in male and especially (seductive) female form, a wandering Jew, a saint, a heroic knight, bandits, hermits and many more. Written in the intellectual aftermath of the French Revolution, the novel embraces large themes under a mystical-oriental cloak, whereby Christian values are challenged, the merits of Islam are considered and taboos in general are flaunted in a rather gay, fantastic way. The scope is universal and the tone cosmopolitan, even for our modern, blasé eyes and minds.

The reader is swept along in this strange, original, fascinating book and one can only regret that the final chapters were tragically lost in or en route to Paris after the first part had been published in a Russian translation in St. Petersburg in 1805. But then the fragmentary nature of the text is well in keeping with its complex structure, so the resulting text is not only a masterpiece of fiction in the fantastic vein, but a masterpiece of fiction, period.

The Life and Opinions of the Tomcat Murr by E.T.A. Hoffmann (1821) [7]

I just loved this story about - in part, but what a part ! - a particularly gifted cat who is not only smart enough to learn the language of humans (something we often suspected our own cat Mistigri of being able to do too) but who is lucky enough to have a superior kind of master who reads aloud to him (unlike Mistigri) so that he learns how the letters in the book he is staring at correspond to the sounds that he is hearing, and thus learns to read as well. After that, writing is a piece of cake for this super-cat, and this book is his autobiography, recounting not only his intellectual attitudes to life (the original German title Lebensansichten des Katers Murr is literally "Views on Life of the Tomcat Murr") but the conversations of his master with his erudite friends as well as his own thoughts and escapades and very involved love-life.

To help stir things up, the manuscript is presented as having been mixed up in the printer’s shop with the biography of a strange and inspired musician and writer-intellectual named Kreisler, also the theme figure in Hoffmann’s renowned Tales in the Manner of Calot (the basis of Offenbach’s celebrated operetta Tales of Hoffmann), who has his own scrapes and escapades and expansive semi-mystical meditations, so the Murr chapters alternate with the Kreisler ones in a bizarre and unsettling but totally original and intriguing way that leaves the reader quite overawed at the vigour and scope of this work like none other.

The overall result is a funny, brilliant and profound parody of a Bildungsroman (a novel of a young man’s learning-about-life process) that just explodes with the individualism and the fascination with the mysteries of life and with the world of fantasy that characterized the romantic spirit of the time, of which Hoffmann was a leading spirit.

An unusual and inspired book that I rank very highly indeed.

Taugenichts: Memoirs of a Good-For-Nothing by Joseph Freiherr von Eichendorff (1826) [8]

In the first sentence of this masterpiece of the German Romantic movement the youthful and very carefree narrator rubs the sleep out of his eyes, listens to the twittering of the starlings and the murmurings of his father’s mill and sits on the doorstep to bask in the warm spring sunshine, only to hear his father’s outraged admonition "you Taugenichts (Good-For-Nothing)! Getting up at noon while we have all been slaving away since daybreak! Take your things and get out of my house forever !" So our young and very carefree hero takes off down the road in front of his father’s mill with his beloved violin and a few pennies to visit the wide world.

Taugenichts, who is just about always either singing or playing his violin or listening to birds trilling away or admiring the glories of nature or the charms of the many females who pass his way, in no time at all is - because of his singing and musical ability and perhaps also because of his quite irresistible easy-going charm - first taken on as a gardener and then as a gatekeeper at a splendid castle, where he can indulge to his heart’s content his inclinations for singing and listening to the sounds of nature and bringing flowers to lovely young ladies. But when his love for the lovely lady of the castle is unrequited, he unhesitatingly sets off without a penny down the road again, on the way to the Rome of his dreams - the Rome not only of saints but also of Venus-worshipping pagan rites - and rapidly becomes involved in a bewildering set of dramas and quidproquos and rococo adventures which do lead him to the Rome of his ambition. Where he finds and loses again the mysterious lady of the castle back home, where he somehow manages to finally end up again amidst many imbroglios and much confusion.

Seeped in music and poetry and the love of nature, deceptively erudite and ambitious in spite of the bucolic simplicity of its wandering but quite unforgettable hero, brimming over with humour and vitality, this complex masterpiece both looks back to the baroque and rococo past while magnificently incarnating the exuberance of the Romantic spirit of its time.

La peau de chagrin (The Magic Skin) by Honoré de Balzac (1831) [9]

Balzac’s first successful novel of his mature Comédie Humaine period (1831-1850), this metaphorical rags-to-riches tale with a philosophical/fantastic twist has all the drive and scope and convincing down-to-earth detail that make his later works so special and so interesting and readable almost two centuries later.

Le Père Goriot (Old Goriot) by Honoré de Balzac (1835) [10]

I found this renowned novel, that had very much impressed me aeons ago when I first read it as a youth in an English translation, to be quite perfect in both form and content. The strength of the characters (Goriot, Rastignac, Goriot’s daughters …), the force and drama of the story, the quality of the prose with its long and often complex sentences that seem to flow on in a quite irrepressible way - each of these constituent parts contribute to a greater whole, surely one of the master’s finest works.

Le lys dans la vallée (The Lily of the Valley) by Honoré de Balzac (1836) [11]

A moving love story that finishes of course rather badly (after all, this is Balzac!), written with a sweep and an intensity that carries all before it. The descriptions of the états d’âme of the leading characters, Félix de Vandenesse and Blanche de Mortsauf, of the countryside and of the grape harvesting in the Loire valley where they walk and talk and get wrapped up in each other, are surely among the finest things Balzac has ever done. Not an action novel, there are no battles or struggles with giant whales or implacable enemies, but this masterful novel explores relationships in an adult, penetrating way that has rarely if ever been equalled.

The Three Musketeers by Alexandre Dumas (1844) [12]

Athos, Aramis, Porthos and d’Artagnan: four of the best-known characters in all fiction (and all in the same book!), whose names are recognized all over the world by people who have never even read this famous book that has caught - and continues to catch - the imagination of people everywhere in a way that very few other books have ever done.

True, it is basically just a popular best-seller, an action story of the cape-and-sword genre, written in a hurry for the mass public by one of the most prolific writers of all time with the collaboration of a ghost writer, Auguste Macquet, who provided much of the basic story line and the initial draft of a part of the text.

Yet in spite of all these drawbacks from a certain elitist literary point of view, its qualities sweep all obstacles aside in its irresistible ascension to the highest ranks of world literature: its unrelenting pace, carrying the young d’Artagnan (at 19 young enough for young readers to empathize with and old enough to capture the imagination and win the hearts of the not-so-young) without a pause from his native Gascoigne to court intrigues in Paris and London and battles in the company of his musketeer comrades throughout the kingdom, not to mention dangerous adventures of another sort in the arms of Milady; the terrific story line; the atmosphere of daring and bravache and enterprise that seems to dominate the spirit of that rambunctious age in these pages; the sheer energy of the writing; the brilliance and sharpness of the dialogues.

Throw in all those ingredients, add a touch of genius, a never-failing inspiration and a mysterious alchemy and you get a work of art of surprising but undeniable stature. A work of art whose surface glitter is rounded out by its darker side, the darker side of the four heroes as a parable for the downside of humanity itself, when they commit in cold blood and with solemn solidarity a deed that will haunt them for the rest of their lives and that will drive the events of the superb sequel to this great novel that Dumas produced the following year, Twenty Years After.

The Count of Monte Cristo by Alexandre Dumas (1844) [13]

Dumas’s great, massive epic on the theme of revenge, his only non-historical novel. This is a strange story that goes way beyond the main plot line of treachery, escape and revenge to explore large side avenues in unexpected ways, becoming progressively more and more cloaked in a veil of oriental mystery. A surprisingly complex tale that combines action and mystery and meditation and morality with a relentless drive that has impressed its countless readers all over the world (the book has apparently long had a semi-cult status in China) since its publication in 1844 (the same year as The Three Musketeers!) by a Dumas at the height of his formidable powers.

Wuthering Heights by Emily Bronte (1847) [14]

This is of course a wonderful book. It has everything - passion, scope, emotion, significance - and is told in a masterful way that casts a spell on the reader from start to end. As an extra plus it evokes in the most haunting, powerful way the unique atmosphere of a very special place, North Yorkshire, where the author herself met her own tragically premature death from tuberculosis at the age of 29 in the damp and fetid climate of that strange land.

Jane Eyre by Charlotte Bronte (1847) [15]

This famous novel needs no introduction: suffice it to say that its enviable reputation as one of the finest English-language novels of all time is fully justified. Scope, emotion, pace, mastery of the language: all of the ingredients for a masterpiece are here, with a perhaps feminine kind of sensitivity to heighten the nuances of awareness, but in no way limited in scope to the feminine experience.

Vanity Fair by William Thackeray (1848) [16]

A magnificently vibrant portrait of the society of his time, the mid-19th Century when England was the most prosperous and industrially advanced country in the world, and of the eternal social comedy, the fair of vanities (the never-ending fair in the wicked town of Vanity referred to in the title was the central theme of John Bunyan’s 17th-Century classic Pilgrim’s Progress), that rings just so true down to our own times.

What a writer, and what a masterpiece! Witty, brilliant, interesting, this saga has scope and scale and fully achieved ambition. One of the undoubted monuments of English literature, one of of the two or three most outstanding English novels of the fabulous 19th Century, and one of my favourite books of any time.

The Scarlet Letter by Nathaniel Hawthorne (1850) [17]

The classic tale of parochial puritanism in a primitive place: pioneer pre-revolutionary America. A powerful portrayal of the practically-irresistible pressure exercised by dominant social attitudes on the individual that is just about as relevant today as ever.

Moby Dick or The Whale by Herman Melville (1851) [18]

Why is there so much talk about the long-awaited Great American Novel? Here it is! Written in a vigorous style peppered with very American humour and a quite unparalleled enthusiasm for his subject, the quality of the text is of the very highest order, complex and rich and highly articulate - perhaps too sophisticated in fact for the American public of the day who practically ignored this novel at the time of its publication in 1851 in spite of the big successes of his previous books, Typee in 1846 and Ogoo in 1847, both about life in the Polynesian islands in the exotic South Seas.

Melville embraces some very deep themes indeed in this epic adventure laced with metaphysical implications, where the ship and its crew become a microcosm of the universe itself and the obsessional pursuit of the White Whale a metaphor of man’s impassioned but probably futile course through life. But the story has its feet firmly on the ground, or rather of the ship-planks, it is infused with a hardly believable energy and drive, its central figure Captain Ahab is as monumental a creation as any in literature, the text is studded with moving and profound and brilliant passages and with many appropriate mythological and biblical references, the dialogues are as real and true to life as can be ...

If only Melville had managed to contain his enthusiasm for the subject of whales in general and white whales in particular a bit more by eliminating a number of those long documentary passages which interrupt the narrative so often! But then, that was in a way the style of the time, and Les Misérables and War and Peace, which were both being written at about the same time as Moby Dick, are also full of long documentary chapters that break into the flow of the narrative in the same way. But there is no way I would want to have the magnificent and highly appropriate documentary passages in Les Misérables (on Waterloo, on the history of Paris convents, on the Paris sewage system, on the construction of barricades ...) to be removed from that masterpiece whereas the extraneous chapters that give Moby Dick its "Encyclopaedia of the Whale" aspect could probably be put with advantage into an Appendix (as could the long, boring chapters in War and Peace on Tolstoy’s theory of History).

Barchester Towers by Anthony Trollope (1857) [19]

I had just read beforehand Melville’s great opus Moby Dick, certainly a hard number to follow without coming across as small and trite, but this enthralling work, of a totally different nature, managed the feat.

Helped by a particularly heartfelt preface by John Kenneth Galbraith and by the excellent introduction (as usual with Penguin Classics editions) to approach this work in a relaxed, at-peace-with-the-world, unhurried frame of mind ready to enjoy the fine flavour of that which I was about to receive, I found myself savouring and sipping and smiling at practically every page throughout this quite bewitching story of strife in the Anglican Church in a glorious and ancient and utterly civilized corner of south England baptized Barchester.

A story that subtly is saying things about tolerance and justice and openness to men’s hearts and the virtues of kindness and understanding in an increasingly harsh, competitive, strife-ridden world. And in the most easy and natural prose one can imagine, constantly underpinned with a sense of humour and whimsy at the foibles of the men and women in this imperfect world.

But this being peaceful and civilized Barchester where the gardens are somehow closer to Eden than elsewhere, when I put this wonderful book down I felt that I too had had been touched by its special grace, thanks to the magic of Trollope’s art.

Little Dorrit by Charles Dickens (1857) [20]

In this very big and wide-ranging novel, Dickens follows his eponymous heroine from the Marshalsea Prison for Debtors in south London, where she had lived for the first twenty-plus years of her life and the first half of the book, across France and Switzerland with her newly-rich family on a Grand Tour to Italy, where she spends a couple of years rubbing shoulders with the hordes of semi-expatriate upper-class English that congregated there at the time - the novel is set in the mid-1820s - and then back to London, where the Marshalsea Prison again features prominently, to deal with the dramatic events and revelations and turns of plot with which the last part of the novel is filled and which you will enjoy discovering for yourself when you read or reread this masterful novel, one of Dickens’s finest.

This is a riches-to-rags-to-riches-to-rags story featuring anew, after The Old Curiosity Shop (with Little Nell) and Bleak House (with a quite forgettable heroine whose name escapes me for the moment), a wispy, pure, almost impossibly perfect young heroine, here nicknamed Little because she is, at 22, mistaken for a 10-year-old by all and sundry, including the male lead, who only wakes up to the fact that she is marriageable during the last few pages. Her dreamy father had sort of wandered into the Marshalsea prison after squandering his family’s means, without in the least understanding how or why, and had promptly established himself there as a kind of gentleman-guru to be honoured and admired and above all nourished because of the lustre his presence brought to the institution and its inmates, precisely because of his otherworldly, absent-minded way of being somehow superior in a nice, gentlemanly and admirable manner. He is yet another example of Dickens’s genius for creating the most amazingly offbeat but credible and enjoyable-to-read-about secondary characters that is his unmistakable trademark, although Mr. Dorrit is probably the secondary character with the biggest role in any of his novels: nincompoop and irritating and phoney as he may well be, with his endearing absent-minded ways and his gentleman-mania he is nevertheless the one who steals the show here from his eponymous but rather too anonymous daughter.

As is usually the case with Dickens’s novels, which generally feature bland but boring heroes or heroines who are overshadowed by stunningly vivid minor characters (if there were Oscars for novels, Dickens would certainly be the all-time champion for the number of Best Supporting Role winners), the main interest is provided once again by the multitude of secondary characters who populate its pages, and by its villain, another Dickens strong point. Although here the portrait of the nasty Monsieur Rigaud turns somewhat to caricature in the rush of events at the end (but then he is a Frenchman, so the blacker the better for the English reader of the day, and probably of today too), the irresistible magnetic force exuded by this hard, glib and intelligent evil-doer, probably modelled on the celebrated assassin Lacernaire, provides a note of harshness and menace from the very first page onwards that keeps the whole story well centred on the worldly realities that are so foreign to the Dorrit family’s mindset. Although when one thinks of Dickens one thinks mostly of the horde of full-of-life minor characters that are constantly bursting out of his pages, I wonder if in the end his villains do not contribute at least as much to Dickens’s final stature. Monsieur Rigaud here, the unscrupulous Fagan and the criminal Tom Sykes of Oliver Twist, the miserly Squeers of Nicolas Nickleby, the hypocritical Mr. Pecksniff of Martin Chuzzlewit, the suave and brilliant John Chester of Barnaby Rudge, the glib Carker of Dombey and Son, the cold-hearted stepfather Mr. Murdstone in David Copperfield, and so on (redoubtable villains feature prominently in all of his novels after The Pickwick Papers) are as vividly portrayed as the extravagant or eccentric, typically “Dickensian” minor characters that populate all of his books including of course this one (here you will particularly enjoy discovering Young John and Mr. Sparkler, the hapless suitors of Little Dorrit) - but they are less purely Victorian-Dickensian, they are far closer to modern prototypes that we can relate to, they touch upon the universal to remind us of the nature of our own society and times in a way that the more positive and typically Dickensian characters do not, and they thereby express a facet of Dickens’s genius that is essential, I do believe, to his generally recognized status as England’s greatest novelist.

Little Dorrit, published when Dickens was 45 years old, was his eleventh novel. He was to write only three more before his untimely death of a stroke at the age of 58: his second and most renowned historical novel, A Tale of Two Cities, his crowning masterpiece, Great Expectations, and his (quite magnificent) last complete novel, Our Mutual Friend.

This is thus mature Dickens, written by the most popular author of his time, who had known quite phenomenal success from his first book (The Pickwick Papers) onwards. Since Dombey and Son, published ten years earlier, one has the impression that he had been consciously endeavouring to consolidate his literary reputation with novels of a more elaborate - and somewhat more sedate - nature than his initial works, which had been more directly written for the mass public (The Pickwick Papers, Oliver Twist, Nicolas Nickleby and The Old Curiosity Shop). This literary ambition is clearly present here, from the striking first sentence (always a good sign for the reader undertaking a lengthy journey through hundreds of pages) onwards ("Thirty years ago, Marseilles lay burning in the sun, one day"). On page 353 there is the very first purely descriptive passage that I can remember coming across in his entire oeuvre, and most excellent it is too, as I am sure you will agree: "A tranquil summer sunset shone upon him as he approached the end of his walk, and passed through the meadows by the river-side. He had that sense of peace, and of being lightened of a weight of care, which country quiet awakens in the dwellers in towns. Everything within his view was lovely and placid.........The long lines of red and gold in the sky, and the glorious track of the descending sun, were all divinely calm. Upon the purple tree-tops far away, and on the open height near at hand up which the shades were slowly creeping, there was an equal hush. Between the real landscape and its shadow in the water, there was no division; both were so untroubled and clear, and, while so fraught with solemn mystery of life and death, so hopefully reassuring to the gazer’s soothed heart, because so tenderly and mercifully beautiful". While it fits in well with the story line, the very rarity of such descriptive passages here and elsewhere does tend to highlight the author’s desire to show just what he can do - and the reader can only conclude that he has proved his point: he can do much.

As usual with Dickens, there are many references to biblical and Shakespearean texts, perhaps more than ever before, and as usual he often and effectively employs colourful and appropriately-placed proverbs such as the following which particularly caught my eye: "Love lives in cottages and courts", "Thought is free" and "He who touches pitch will be defiled". There are some impressive adages of his own fabrication too, such as: "There is no playing fast and loose with the truth, in any game, without growing the worse for it" and "Every failure teaches a man something, if he will learn", and even more numerous than usual references to well-known poems and texts, among which these two memorable ones from Samuel Johnson: "For we that live to please must please to live", and (speaking of a dull, tiresome fellow whom he chanced to meet) "That fellow seems to me to possess but one idea, and that is a wrong one". And then there is the magnificent closing sentence, certainly the most lyrical end to any of his works: "They went quietly down into the roaring streets, inseparable and blessed; and as they passed along in sunshine and in shade, the noisy and the eager, and the arrogant and the froward and the vain, fretted, and chafed, and made their usual uproar".

So, given that the dialogues (yet another area of Dickensian excellence) are always up to his highest standards - and there are none higher - we can safely conclude that this novel is a prime example of the extent of Dickens’s literary mastery.

Little Dorrit was the third (and last) of a series of novels sharply critical of various aspects of the England of his time, after the massive 975-page Bleak House (where Dickens can be said to have invented the genre of the detective novel with his brilliant hero Inspector Buckley), whose overall theme was the extravagant bureaucracy of the Chancery Lane civil-law court system, and Hard Times, set in the stark and, to Dickens, quite unfamiliar industrial landscape of northern England (his shortest and probably his weakest novel, in spite of its big theme). Dickens’s social critique here is of a much broader scope than ever before: in sweeping, virulently sarcastic, often bitter tones he takes on a wide range of targets: the bureaucracy of the state in general and the Patent Office procedures for inventors in particular, the arrogance of the aristocracy and their monopoly of the state apparatus, the corrupt and antiquated rotten-borough system of allocating parliamentary seats, the general passion for lucre, the servility and indeed gullibility of one and all towards wealth and social status (the « People » of the day), and, notably, the unscrupulousness and hollowness of the world of high finance. All pretty strong stuff, often couched in no uncertain terms; witness the following passage (particularly significant in view of the novel’s provisional title, "Nobody’s Fault") about the Bleeding Heart Yard area in central London where many of the protagonists live: "There was people of pretty well all sorts of trades you could name, all wanting to work, and not able to get it. There was old people, after working all their lives, going and being shut up in the Workhouse, much worse fed and lodged and treated altogether than - Mr. Plornish said manufacturers, but appeared to mean malefactors. Why, a man didn’t know where to turn himself, for a crumb of comfort. As to who was to blame for it, Mr. Plornish didn’t know who was to blame for it. He could tell you who suffered, but he couldn’t tell you whose fault it was.". Or this comment about the financial magnate Mr. Merdle "All people knew (or thought they knew) that he had made himself immensely rich, and, for that reason alone, prostrated themselves before him more degradedly and less excusably than the darkest savage creeps out of his hole in the ground to propitiate, in some log or reptile, the Deity of his benighted soul".

But then Dickens’s innate sense of humour and his incorrigible interest in the infinite variety of the human personality usually come to the fore to put the social critique into a sort of background mode. Witness this description of the dinner of the innocuous-seeming but hard-hearted proprietor of the Bleeding Heart Yard tenements: "The last of the Patriarchs had always been a mighty eater, and he disposed of an immense quantity of solid food with the benignity of a good soul who was feeding someone else", and of his rent-collector: "Mr. Planks, who was always in a hurry, and who referred at intervals to a little dirty note-book which he kept beside him (perhaps containing the names of the defaulters he meant to look up by way of dessert), took in his victuals with a good deal of noise, a good deal of dropping about, and a puff and a snort occasionally, as if he were nearly ready to steam away".

The Marshalsea Prison for Debtors, which plays such a prominent role in the book and whose very existence seems so scandalous to the modern reader, is not really the subject of Dickens’s ire and satire, as the benign character of the denizen of the Dorrit family and the gentle tone with which life in this island of peace and shelter is portrayed during the first half of the book are quite in contrast to the harsher environment in the wide and wicked world outside with which the Dorrit family is confronted in the second half of the book. The Marshalsea Prison, where Dickens’s own father had been imprisoned for debt when Dickens was twelve years old, had in fact been torn down years before the novel appeared in 1857, and the last debtor’s prison in England was closed less than a decade later. So Dickens’s treatment of this aspect of Victorian England is far less socio-political than his treatment of the lure of lucre, of the arrogance of the elite and of the financial scandals that so rocked and shocked the most developed country in the world at the time (and still do ...). In fact the prison that we can most relate to today is the one in Marseilles that is so vividly described in the opening chapter, which is probably going as strong as ever to this very day.

Like all of Dickens’s books (with the exception of the two historical novels Barnaby Rudge and A Tale of Two Cities), Little Dorrit was published in monthly instalments, a mode of publication which seems to have ensured the steady pace and regular changes of scene and turns of plot which make any Dickens novel so readable (the two above-mentioned exceptions were published ... weekly!). Unlike most of his other works - the historical novels again excepted, probably because of the frenetic rhythm of their publication - Little Dorrit keeps up the pace and interest and level of quality right to the very end, in spite of the final melodrama and coincidences and somewhat over-strong sentimentality that are characteristic of so many of his plots.

Oblomov by Ivan Goncharov (1859) [21]

If you have ever had trouble getting out of bed in the morning you will appreciate the long first chapter of this marvellous book, wholly devoted to the efforts of our hero Oblomov - whose very name has entered the Russian language to symbolize the somewhat slothful and pleasure-first side of the Russian temperament - to raise himself from a horizontal position to a vertical one so as to get the day off to a start with his morning cup of chocolate. He is surrounded by vigorous, dashing friends and relations, he has a considerable amount of wealth and property and disposes of all the modern amenities imaginable, and he has a splendid opportunity for a most agreeable and advantageous marriage, if only he could get up and go about his business energetically enough.

This is an utterly charming book that in its easy light-hearted way paints a broad canvas of the changing Russia of the mid-19th Century. And Goncharov has created in Oblomov, a friendly and likeable thirty-something nobleman whose passion for the pleasures of the table and for the easy way of life overrides all other considerations, one of the most memorable characters in Russian literature.

Great Expectations by Charles Dickens (1861) [22]

This is Dickens at his very best. A mature work, his penultimate novel, it gets off to a rousing start (the famous encounter of the young Pip with an escaped convict takes place on page 2!), the writing is absolutely sparkling, the characters are finely chiselled and marvellously full of life, and the theme is a large one - this is a Bildungsroman, a tale of youth growing up and learning about life’s ups and downs. So, yes, this is a masterpiece.

Although it is one of his relatively shorter novels, about half the length of most of his other novels as it was written for publication in weekly instalments briefer than the standard (for Dickens) long monthly ones, it makes up for the lack of the more leisurely, sprawling, panoramic atmosphere of his longer works with its pace and its sparkle, and although there are fewer of those wonderful Victorian-Dickensian secondary characters extraneous to the central story line that he had such a special genius for imagining and portraying, they are present here too of course, notably in the persons of the hopelessly honest Mr. Pocket with his turbulent household and the amazingly human - in his private life - notary’s clerk Mr. Wemmick and his aged mother. The prose and dialogues are superb, with many remarkable passages, with a constant touch of gravity beneath the surface as well as a steady tinge of humour of the most charming kind.

So though the romantic ending (which in fact was changed after the manuscript had been completed on the probably misguided urging of his close friend, the renowned author Arthur Lytton-Bulwell) is a bit too convenient to be fully satisfying, the novel as a whole certainly is that and more - an almost perfect example of the art of this great writer at the peak of his powers.

Les Misérables* by Victor Hugo (1862) [23]

This is a sublime reading experience, without any doubt one of the greatest novels of all time. From start to finish one is swept up by its steady and solidly-sustained pace, by its ambition and scope and universality, by its forceful mix of humanism (the good side of man) and its realism (the down side), by its passion and its power and its drama. And one is moved to the depths by some of the finest pages in all literature, such as the scene where the young Cosette, miserable and cold and terrified of the night and its shadows, alone in the middle of the threatening woods where she is struggling to carry the pail of water she has been sent to fetch by her tormentors, finds the heavy pail suddenly lifted from her hands and the strong hand of Jean Valjean leading her out of the dark into a new life - one of the absolute highlights of my entire reading experience. There are many other passages of exceptional grandeur in this big book, such as Jean Valjean’s life-moulding encounter with Monseigneur Bienvenu in the early stages of the novel, or his flight from the police through the streets of Paris at night, or the barricade battle scenes, or his epic escape through the sewers of Paris, or his final dramatic confrontation with his nemesis, Inspector Javert, and many others, but the key merit of the book for me as for most readers I would think, at least those who can benefit from the original text without recourse to a translator’s services, is the quality and sheer intrinsic interest of the text: this man was a writer of immense stature.

Hugo was both a novelist and a poet, and there is an ease and fullness and breadth about the text that is the mark of a born master of words - it turns out in effect that his oeuvre contains the largest number of different words of any writer in the history of the French language. So although some have baulked at the long, very long documentary-type chapters - on Waterloo, on the history of Paris convents, on the building of the sewers of Paris, on the construction of barricades in the 1848 revolution (17 years after the events described in the novel!) - that are scattered about the book, most reader-admirers of Les M. find them so engrossing in their own right and so helpful to a heightened appreciation of the key episodes that they introduce that it would be impossible to feel that they would have been best omitted in the way one can easily feel about the big digressions in other major works written practically at the same time, such as the many whale-documentary chapters in Moby Dick and the long Theory of History chapters in War and Peace.

So what is there to criticize? Perhaps Jean Valjean does disappoint us somewhat at the end when he bows down to conventional values and behaviour in his old age, but that is the natural and hardly-condemnable consequence of his obsession with his adopted daughter’s well-being, and I found a certain form of subtle realism in this portrait of a once-towering man declining into as peaceful and strife-free existence as possible in the twilight of his life cycle.

This book just has to be on anyone’s list of the Top n.

Crime and Punishment by Fyodor Dostoyevsky (1866) [24]

The great Russian classics, of which this is one of the foremost, need to be read in an edition with extensive footnotes to clarify the multitude of literary, geographical, historical and linguistic references that abound in the text, as well as an index to the bewildering variety of diminutive and patronymic names that abound. A lengthy analytical preface or post-face is called for too in the case of major treasures of world literature such as Crime and Punishment, much as a fine jewel would always be enclosed in an appropriate jewel case when being offered as a gift. For the quality of the editorial apparatus the Pléiade editions are the very best, way superior to anything I have seen elsewhere.

This is a very Russian novel, as the hero Raskolnikov (surely one of the best-known names in all fiction) commits his crime early on and the rest of the novel concentrates on the inner workings of the mind of this articulate, intelligent and almost likeable young man, on his introspective soul-searching and on his intense interaction with his police pursuers. The theme is certainly a big one but to me, perhaps because of the overwhelming presence of the theme in our modern mass media (hardly D’s fault) I cannot help feeling somewhat detached about the fate and state of mind of a man who has so pitilessly clubbed an old woman to death.

The Last Chronicle of Barset by Anthony Trollope (1867) [25]

This was the sixth and last novel in Trollop’s Barsetshire series, that began with the excellent The Warden and continued with his wonderful masterpiece, Barchester Towers. Surprise and delight, this final and most sober work in the series, on the quite eternal themes of honour and dishonour, of honesty and integrity and social opprobrium, of pride, poverty and self-respect, rises to the glorious heights of BT thanks to the sparkle of Trollope’s prose, to his wonderful gift for dialogue, and to his ability to fluidly, precisely, and ever so artfully and subtly delve into the depths of the human soul. What a writer, and what a work!

The Idiot* by Fyodor Dostoyevsky (1868) [26]

I can’t do justice to Dostoyevsky’s masterpiece, but I can say that its central figure, Prince Mychkine, is probably the single most moving and unforgettable character that I have ever encountered in fiction, that the central theme of a saintly man subtly challenging by his very integrity the values of his time is immensely powerful, that the very many characters that people this panoramic novel are all vibrantly brought to life by dialogues and descriptions that just could not be better, that there is a special tone of import and intense significance throughout this long novel that maintains it from start to finish on the very highest heights. No, I can not put anything higher than this masterpiece of Russian and world literature.

War and Peace* by Leo Tolstoy (1869) [27]

Written by Tolstoy to mark the 50th anniversary of the invasion of Russia by Napoleon, this massive work (the longest novel ever written, I do believe, if we exclude Proust’s A La Recherche du Temps Perdu, which was published in a number of separate volumes - but then so was W & P ...) magnificently captures the drama of men and women caught up in the sweep of a major upheaval that dwarfs the individual and his fate in the face of events that can destroy the very basis of the world they live in. Tolstoy paints a very broad canvas - one of the broadest in the history of literature - of people living and loving and longing and working out their individual destinies against the backdrop of a war that threatens the very existence of their nation, and then puts that war itself against the backdrop of the pulsations of the deep forces of History with a capital H to elevate his saga from a Russian drama to the level of the universal.

And there’s the rub - if there is a flaw in the structure of this epic it is in the extraordinarily long digressions of the author into what might be termed the Tolstoyan Theory of History which, it simply cannot be denied, have not passed the test of time and which the modern reader cannot help but feel that they negatively affect the flow of the novel’s narrative and lower the level of the novel’s intensity and its aesthetic impact on the reader.

These long digressions into the Theory of History do it is true consolidate the vastness of the scope of the work and thereby contribute to its lasting status as a work of awesome and achieved ambition, so we must take the chaff - the digressions - with the wheat: the splendours of the main text and the immense force and quality of the writing and the subtlety of the characterizations and the brilliance of the dialogues and of the narrative as a whole.

This monument of world literature just has to be read in an edition like the incomparable Pléiade where, in addition to numerous necessary footnotes to clarify the very many historical geographical, literary and linguistic references there is a (lengthy) index of the huge cast of this epic, complete with their double-barrelled forenames and their often-numerous diminutive names.

20,000 Leagues Under the Sea by Jules Verne (1870) [28]

This remarkable adventure story with a strong scientific-exploration bent has somehow retained its credibility and readability so many years later in spite of the phenomenal advances made since Verne’s day in engineering and natural science, thanks to his unerring talent for creating drama and excitement at the wonders of nature and the unlimited perspectives for scientific and technological progress. And above all thanks to his knack for telling a marvellous story with pace and enthusiasm and a complete mastery of language. Everyone young and old should read this remarkably imaginative and well-told story, the (great) grandfather of the science-fiction genre.

The Mysterious Island by Jules Verne (1875) [29]

A terrific adventure story, a great theme (man against the elements), an optimistitic, faith-in-mankind’s-possibilities outlook, elegant prose: this modernized version of a Robinson Crusoe tale is surely the master’s finest work. A must read for any youngster around the age of fourteen or so, and for the others too.

Anna Karenina* by Leo Tolstoy (1877) [30]

Anna Karenina and Vronsky, Levin and Kitty, the Prince Oblonsky and Dolly - these are characters that literature is made of, characters that rise up out of these marvellous pages to become as real and as full of life and passion and the drama of life’s experience as any of the people who populate our memories. The characters in this sweeping novel have depth and scope, the central drama of Anna’s passion is as key to the human experience as can be, the background setting (of mounting economic change threatening the very foundations of the timeless way of life in the Russian countryside, so essential to the very soul of that vast country) is as portentous and significant as any could be, and the prose and the dialogues are of the highest possible order: this novel has everything!

If only Tolstoy could have left off his mania for preaching and spared us the too-long political-economical digressions on his theories about how to reform Russian agriculture, this novel would have been as close (if not closer) to perfection as any novel ever written since time began. But maybe it is anyway ...

The Brothers Karamazov* by Fyodor Dostoyevsky (1880) [31]

Is this Dostoyevsky’s greatest book? Hard to say in view of the competition but it very well could be. In any case it constantly sent shivers of aesthetic emotion down my spine with the power of its writing and the scope of its themes and the grandeur of many of its scenes, in a way that Crime and Punishment did not. Although some of the slavophile and religious scenes are hard to relate to for a modern-day non-Russian, the overwhelming impression that this massive monument leaves one with is awe at the sheer beauty and force of the text and the heights which this masterpiece attains and maintains itself at.

Treasure Island by Robert Louis Stevenson (1883) [32]

One of the best books for younger readers ever written, this reread gave me just about as much enjoyment as when I first read it a million years ago. The writing is taut and the story moves along steadily at a nice pace, the bad guys are really well done - for once, unlike the current mythology, pirates are not portrayed as romantic rebels or gentlemen of fortune revelling in their marginal ways while battling for freedom against the establishment, but mostly as the savage cut-throat scum that they really were - and we meet one of the outstanding characters in all fiction I would say, I am referring of course to the extraordinarily resourceful, capable, likeable and dangerous Long John Silver, who actually gets away at the end! What a shame that Stevenson didn’t write a sequel about what he got up to next ...

But then Bjorn Larsson did do just that with his most interesting (although with a way too pro-pirate bent for my taste) novel Long John Silver, a fictionalized autobiography of our bad hero supposedly written at the end of his long and adventurous life, where Larsson imagines not only the sequel to TI but also the prelude to it, featuring Captain Flint (so often referred to in TI) and explaining how the famous treasure ended up where it did and how and why the map got drawn and so on.

In any case my not very original but firmly-held lifelong feeling about this book was confirmed by this reread: anyone who has not read this book around the age of 12 years or so has missed something important in the growing-up experience!

The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain (1884) [33]

Mark Twain’s masterpiece, his sequel to Tom Sawyer, this time written directly for an adult public, where Huck recounts at first hand his harrowing "road trip" down the Mississippi River after escaping from the clutches of his ultra-violent, brutish father (!) into the heartland of the Deep South (!!) with an escaped black slave (!!!).

The scenes of everyday violence in the fronter towns of the Far South are as striking, I would even say hair-raising, to us today as they must have appeared to be to the East Coast readers of Twain’s time for whom he was writing.

An epic adventure tale with a very hard undertone that highlights Twain’s compassion for the weak and the oppressed, conveyed throughout this ambitious work in the heavy vernacular prose and dialogues of Huck and his black companion.

Hunger by Knut Hamsun (1890) [34]

This was the great Norwegian writer’s first novel published under his own name - and what a novel! No doubt somewhat autobiographical, it describes the fight against hunger of a young penniless journalist-writer in the poverty-stricken northern Norwegian town of Christiana who is slowly starving to death for want of food. His fight against the pangs of hunger and his whole relationship with life via the need for nourishment is described in a most effective factual and laconic way that carries all the more weight because of its understatement tone. Never before or since has the vital act of eating been explored in such a powerful, profound way. This is a book both for weight-watchers - if he can get by with so little food for so long, why can’t I cut down a bit? - and gourmets, who are sometimes almost as passionate about the act of eating as the hero of this book. An enriching experience indeed.

Effi Briest by Theodor Fontane (1896) [35]

Fontaine was an extremely prolific writer of novels, short stories, poetry, articles, travel diaries, letters and just about everything else (he wrote almost non-stop every day) who only wrote his first novel at the ripe old age of fifty-nine, in 1878. Like all the rest of his oeuvre (notably his celebrated five-volume travel journal Wanderings in Brandenburg), this novel, his last and most famous, analyses the mores and the mindset of the traditional aristocratically-minded Prussian society struggling, ultimately unsuccessfully, to maintain its status and moral standards in the face of the rise to pre-eminence of the more commercially-minded and dynamic (and – oh horror – sometimes Jewish) middle class. In an elegant but straightforward way we follow the title heroine as she gets involved in an almost-inevitable adulterous relationship with a brilliant and attractive officer friend of the family and has to face the terrible consequences of her flouting of the rules of the established society in the essentially agriculture-oriented, traditional Prussia of her day. Sensitive, beautifully written, Fontaine’s fine intellect and penetrating insights into human nature implicate us in the tensions of this intense social drama in as subtle and artful a way as could be desired.

The Way of All Flesh by Samuel Butler (1903) [36]

Should a novel – or any other work of art for that matter – be judged on the strength and validity of its ideas and convictions? I think not. Should it be judged on the energy and vitality and drama and emotion that the author manages to provoke and portray and evoke? Of course, and on those scores this original, iconoclastic and undeniably powerful work rates very highly indeed. Although generally classified as a 20th Century novel in view of its posthumous publication in 1903, one year after Butler’s death, it was actually written in the 1870s and completely finished by 1884, so it is in fact yet another great literary creation of that extraordinarily rich high-water period of literary and artistic achievement, the European 19th Century.

The subject and ideas - the hypocrisy and injustice and even repulsiveness of a bourgeois-Victorian upbringing based on strict (too strict, practically inhumanly strict) Christian values - are sufficiently wide-ranging and important and, one could say, so much in tune with 21st Century thinking on these themes to fully engage the interest of today’s reader, even though the intensity of the issues involved has largely abated. But the erudition and the wit, the humour and the sharpness and the intensity of the author’s style are still all palpably there and make this one of the major literary accomplishments of its time, I do believe.

I Am a Cat by Natsumé Soseki (1905) [37]

The narrator is a very cocksure cat, quite convinced of his superiority over all and sundry, notably over the University of Tokyo professor (we are in 1912 or so) whose house he shares. The weaker moments of the prestigious professor when being browbeaten by his wife or when engaging in foolish banter with his friends and colleagues are scornfully disparaged by the cat-narrator (who of course perfectly understands human language and behaviour patterns) throughout the book quite pitilessly.

This is an ingenious and extremely brilliant analysis, seen from the inside by an alert and informed but quasi-invisible bystander, of the workings of a Japanese society that had hoisted itself to world-class status in practically all spheres of endeavour (notably industrial, military and scientific) after over forty years of intense modernization and catching up on Western civilization. With considerable profundity, with much subtle exploration of the Japanese psyche, with an extraordinarily effective and powerful ending, and with much humour too, I just cannot help considering this book as being one of the finest masterpieces of its time.

Botchan by Natsumé Soseki (1906) [38]

This is a novel by the author of I Am A Cat that I would enthusiastically recommend to anyone who is a teacher or who has teachers in his/her family or who knows teachers or who has had a teacher who was once a rookie - yes, everyone!, as this is the account of the experiences of a young teacher straight out of university, sent on his first assignment to a remote village location. We are in 1905 and the Russo-Japanese War is vaguely getting under way in the background, and hostilities are also breaking out in Botchan’s classroom and school-yard and threatening to get out of control. How Botchan survives this experience and transmits his humanity and respect for knowledge to his pupils - and to the reader - just has to be read to be properly understood. This little book is a sheer masterpiece, on an eternal and essential theme.

The Marvellous Voyage of Nils Holgersson by Selma Lagerlof (1907) [39]

The journey of a young boy all around Sweden on the back of a wild goose at the turn of the 20th Century, a modern classic justly famous throughout Scandinavia and elsewhere, celebrating the call of the far-off and the love of the land. Heart-warming and timeless, and not by any means only for young people.

This edition presents for the first time the full saga, with all the bits that had previously been cut out of the foreign-language editions on the grounds that they were too literary for young people (!).

Sumida River by Nagai Kafu (1909) [40]

This very short novel is an intensely poetic evocation of the intellectual and moral atmosphere of Japan towards the end of the Meiji epoch after over 40 years of intense modernization and importation of Western techniques and methods into all spheres of public and private life. In less than a hundred pages (excluding the editorial commentary and the author’s preface and particularly fascinating post face) the author powerfully brings to life not only the clash between traditional Japanese values and the harsh and often negative aspects of the ever-encroaching Western influences sweeping that ancient land, but also the look and feel of life in the ancient quarter of Tokyo, the mythical atmosphere of the Sumida river at night, the febrile ambience in a Kabuki theatre, the aesthetic impact of a Hiroshige etching, the fleeting charm of a haiku poem, the importance of a new-bloomed cherry blossom, and much, much more.

This novel has possibly lost something in translation - Kafu was a poet of the highest order - but not necessarily, as this French translation by Pierre Faure under the auspices of Unesco is practically a work of art in its own right. A master-work of modern literature.

A La Recherche du Temps Perdu* by Marcel Proust (1913-27) [41]

Marcel Proust’s great opus was conceived as one vast cathedral-like structure comprising what evolved over time into seven separately-published novels: Du côté de chez Swann (1913), A l’ombre des jeunes filles en fleur (1918 - awarded the Goncourt Prize in 1919), Le côté de Guermantes (1921), Sodom et Gomorrhe (1922), La Prisonnière (1923), La Fugitive (1925) and Le Temps retrouvé (1927), the last three volumes having been published posthumously after Proust’s death in 1922.

The charm sets in from the famous first sentence (Longtemps, je me suis couché de bonne heure.) onwards, and never abates throughout: when this great master of language turns his scrutiny upon an object it is transformed forever in the reader’s mind - a doorknob will almost systematically evoke for me the Narrator’s youthful anguish waiting for his mother’s treasured night-time visits, a church steeple inevitably brings to mind the massive spire dominating the town of Combray, a piece of cake will evoke the Narrator’s madeleine and his incessant mental efforts to recapture the essence of time gone by, a piece of music the absolutely sublime description of the Sonata of Vinteuil, and almost any painting will remind me of the celebrated passage where Swann contemplates a simple small square of yellow paint in Vermeer’s View of Delft.

This unequalled word-mastery, this gift of the gods, is never misused for its own sake in a show of lexical pyrotechnics, but systematically employed to slowly and patiently but effectively and irresistibly build, splendid page after splendid page and superb chapter after superb chapter, a literary monument of unparalleled force and beauty.

Ulysses by James Joyce (1922) [42]

This is a quite amazing literary tour de force - but is it more, much more than that? A number of things are clear. First and foremost, one cannot begin to have a chance to understand what is going on without an extensive critical apparatus with copious footnotes such as in this excellent edition designed for students. Secondly, this book has an experimental, let’s-see-what-can-be-done-with-words side to it which was very much in tune with the questioning drive for innovation and experimentation in art, music and literature that dominated intellectual and artistic Europe at the time of its conception during the apocalyptic adolescence, the teen age, of the 20th Century. Thirdly that this experimental mode of expression is an impressive demonstration of the author’s phenomenal mastery of language, but fourthly that he seems so determined to show just what he can do - one thinks for example of the fifty-odd pages of successive parodies of Swift, Addison, Goldsmith and other 18th Century writers that, even with the help of the scholarly notes to explain who is being caricatured when, cannot help but leave the reader utterly bewildered - that one cannot escape the feeling that one has had too much of a good thing and that the overall architecture of the novel has become so clouded over that it has become hidden from sight. Fifthly, that the background theme announced by its title, that has always been an essential part of the novel’s aura of intellectual grandeur, whereby Stephan Bloom’s wanderings around Dublin on a certain day in 1905 echo the voyages of Homer’s hero around the mythical Mediterranean, is basically invisible to readers who - with the possible exception of professors of English and ancient Greek literature at elite universities - are quite incapable of detecting the minutest links between the Bloom’s peregrinations around diverse Dublin dives and Ulysses’s epic odyssey. Sixthly that all in all this is an incredibly rich, complex work that applies an immense culture to explore brilliantly the expressive resources of language (one thinks of Molly Bloom’s celebrated internal monologue) and to uncover significance in the seemingly straightforward banality of the everyday human experience.

The Magic Mountain* by Thomas Mann (1924) [43]

Reading this extraordinary book is an unforgettable experience. No one who has read this masterpiece can ever forget the young Hans Castorp’s visit to a sanatorium nestled high in the Swiss mountains, where he meets and becomes so intensely involved with its cosmopolitan patients from all over Europe, especially the tantalizingly mysterious Clawdia Chauchat, her explosive protector Mynheer Peeperkorn, and the impetuous philosopher M. Settembrini. Their encounters and discussions and intense relationships have an epic tonality that permeates the novel and creates an aura of significance that leaves the reader profoundly shaken and moved by the exceptional scope of this magnificently-written book with its vast themes of life and death and health and sexuality and passion and search for meaning.

Many of its scenes are particularly unforgettable: the day where Hans gets lost in a blinding snowstorm on a mountain top and has an almost mystical vision, the Walpurgis Night encounter with Clawdia when all constraints are lifted for one intensely-lived night, his confrontations with the extraordinary personality of Meinheer Peeperkorn and his intense conversations with M. Settembrini are some of the most remarkable scenes that I have ever read.

One is a different person after having read this magical book.

The Trial by Franz Kafka (1925) [44]

Kafka’s masterful account of the struggle of Mr. Average Citizen with the state apparatus, written in 1912 but never completed and published posthumously in 1925. But can a book like this about the difficulty if not the impossibility of communication in the modern world ever be finished? Kafka opened up the whole field of absurdity and incommunicability in modern literature with this theme and with the detached mock-realist style of this seminal work.

The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald (1925) [45]

All that glitters is not gold … This sparkling tale of the brilliant social life in the Long Island of the glittering Twenties makes good reading indeed for those non-socialites among us for whom the rich, handsome, elegant, cultured, and mysterious eponymous (war-)hero would be quite insupportable if he had turned out to really be all those American-dreamy good things with no redeeming awfulnesses to get him back down nearer to our lowly level.

The story reads for the most part in its relaxed narrative way like a New Yorker story for sophisticated suburbanites which it just might have been at some point, but it somehow develops a deeper tone as it starts getting behind the surface shine and broadens its scope and widens its significance in a most effective and even moving way.

The author captures with his casual but sophisticated style the glamour and punch of a jazzy nouveau-riche age that indelibly marked the imagination of America and the world, making this short novel undoubtedly one of the most interesting and enduring American novels of the century.

Fiesta (The Sun Also Rises) by Ernest Hemingway (1927) [46]

This was Hemingway’s first major novel, published in 1927, better known under its later title The Sun Also Rises. It’s set essentially in the Paris of 1924 and in Pamplona, Spain, during the 7-day bullfight fiesta there.

The narrator is an American journalist-writer based in Paris (like Hemingway) who had participated in the first World War on the Austro-Italian front (like Hemingway), where he was wounded in a way most unfortunate for his future love-life (unlike Hemingway, at least not physically). He spends most of his time in Paris wandering around the bars, brasseries, restaurants and nightspots where the Anglo-Saxon expatriate community then tended to congregate, where he constantly crosses paths with a former amour Lady Brett Ashley, an upper-class English modernite who lives on her wit and name, not to say her charms. He meets up with her again in Pamplona where he has gone with two friends to participate in the festivities there, centred on the then-not-as-famous-as-it-is-now bullrun through the city streets and a climactic bullfight, magnificently described.

For the first part of the book the narrator thus wanders around his favorite city, constantly meeting up with acquaintances with whom he shares conversations and drinks, and then moves along on his seemingly endless and possibly aimless search for ... something that he does not articulate and that the author leaves unspecified. And the atmosphere of that existential search is expressed in an original, systematic, exercise-de-style kind of way.

Does that not remind us of something ? Yes, this is decidedly reminiscent of Steven Dedalus’s day of roaming around the Dublin of 1905 in Ulysses. Hemingway was certainly familiar with Joyce’s epic work, published in Paris in 1922 by the only English-language book store in the city at that time, Shakespeare & Co, where he met and became good friends with Joyce. Was Hemingway interested in emulating Joyce’s idea of experimenting with language forms in a new way, in tune with the drive for technical experimentation then so predominant in other art forms ? This consideration does tend to reinforce the interest of this important work, in my humble opinion.

The narrator being American, the vague à l’âme of the "lost generation" is copiously nourished by alcohol in almost every possible variety. And copious is hardly an appropriate word for the quantities that get routinely consumed morning, noon and night. Is the determined, aggressive drinking, often culminating in crude rows and in one case serious fisticuffs, an expression of the désœuvrement of the Lost Generation, or the cause of it, one might wonder ? It is in any case impressive, bordering on the extravagant : for example, in the final goodbye dinner the narrator has already personally gotten through three bottles of fine wine before ordering another two for dessert for his ladylove (who sips a bit) and himself !

In any case, this is a story about disenchantment, told in a turgid, abrupt, bare style that effectively evokes the sparse mental horizons of the participants and the existential angst of the narrator, a style particularly well suited to the straightforward tell-it-like-it-is American-way-of-being of the main protagonists. It must have seemed strikingly original at the time. Sentences are very short. The narrator recounts in minute detail his most mundane activities. He gets out of bad and shaves. He crosses the street to the café. He has a café and croissant and goes to the office. We are light-years away from Oblomov, where it takes Goncharov an entire chapter to describe his unforgettable hero’s efforts to get out of bed in the morning ! But though the novelty of the style has now worn off (as has been the case with Joyce’s stylistic extravagances), Hemingway’s understatement style is as effective as ever in engaging the reader to go beyond and beneath the surface narrative to empathize with the profound existential concerns being addressed.

And while literary life in Paris of the 1920s is an interesting subject, and women, wine and wondering about the meaning of life are important, there are nevertheless really significant things in life to be dealt with - such as bullfighting! That is the overriding theme of the last and very successful part of this novel. The mounting excitement in the air before the start of the fiesta, the religious processions which underline the higher significance of the event, the exhilaration, festivity and solidarity of the spectators, the solemnity of the occasion, the danger and blood and gore (human and animal) that are shed during various phases of the week-long ceremonial are tremendously well conveyed. This escapade to exotic Pamplona provides a striking contrast to the existential ennui experienced everywhere else by the narrator, and nicely prepares the elegant dénouement in the final chapter.

A modern must.

The Sound and the Fury by William Faulkner, (1929) [47]

This striking novel is certainly a tour de force, written largely - as one eventually ends up realizing - from the viewpoint of a mentally retarded youth in the back-lands of the deep South, in a stream-of-consciousness mode that most effectively transcribes what one can very well imagine to be the thought processes of a deranged mind.

But does a spectacular technical display of great originality make for a great work of art? On the whole, I would say not. The subject matter though - the mindset of the southern USA man (we are in the thirties, the height of the Dark Ages down in those there parts in the days when Mississippi and Louisiana had more in common with the banana republics southwards than with the rest of the US of A northwards) - is of enormous interest and significance and there are some superb passages in the more straightforward parts, notably the all-too-short chapter where the black folk make their way to Sunday church to listen to a famous guest preacher, whose absolutely fabulous address to the congregation, one of the finest pages in all of American literature I would say, cannot fail to send shivers of emotion down the most hardened reader’s spine. I mean, you are there, man, in that church packed out with that big crowd of local people as spell-bound as they are, and you are beginning to understand what it’s all about, and why this is an important book...

Vile Bodies by Evelyn Waugh (1930) [48]

An extremely brilliant, and at times extremely funny, novel set in the frantic pleasure-seeking period immediately after the First World War, peopled with Bright Young Things dressed and behaving and thinking about things in general and partying in particular as never before. Although Waugh’s book can be read as a sort of social document on the mores and attitudes of a brilliant, innovative, thrusting decade bursting with a desire to live life to the hilt (before another catastrophe occurred?) that stands out in the European and American imagination in a way that few decades before or after have ever done, it is a complex work with a number of interleaving themes that cannot be so simply classified as a sort of period drama. The sex referred to in the title, which is part of the image we retain of those outlandish and daring times when it first became the over-riding public topic that it still is in our own times almost a century later, is certainly present but only in a smooth understatement kind of way as the party-going and satisfaction-seeking Bright Young Things (a term first coined I do believe in this novel and which instantaneously entered the language to categorize the frenetic young socialites who came to symbolize the new spirit of that post-war age) try to sort out their relationships and find their way in the world. Above and beyond the (fascinating) subject matter of this outstanding book I appreciated especially the smooth, elegant, classy prose and dialogues of this very gifted writer.

Voyage au bout de la nuit* by Louis-Ferdinand Céline (1932) [49]

The narrator Bardamu gets sucked up in the enthusiasm of the early days of the First World War, gets rapidly disillusioned, unexpectedly survives a suicidal mission to which he has been casually assigned, deserts, escapes through southern France to Africa, hides in a jungle populated by the most terrifying insects I have ever read about, goes to New York where he scrounges around a while before getting a job in a gigantic car factory in Detroit, and manages to wend his way back to the most glaucous urban environment in the world, the Paris working-class suburbs of the early Depression days where he opens up shop as a doctor catering to the health needs of his not-very-attractive and hopelessly-penniless neighbours and clients - and we have now covered less than a third of this magnificent masterpiece, and the voyage referred to in the superbly expressive title can really begin.

Much more though than for its acerbic and everlastingly valid social comment, or for its brilliant portrayal of the hugely significant subjects broached (wartime desertion, colonialism in Africa, factory life in America, the desolation of the 20th-century urban landscape), this book rises to the very highest heights above all on the strength of its extraordinarily innovative and powerful language. Apart from his masterful ear for the rhythm of the spoken tongue and his gift for snappy sayings and his innate word-mastery, Céline with this book brought language as it is spoken on the streets and in the slums into the realm of literature in a way that has often been imitated since but never equalled. The only downside is that it cannot really be properly appreciated in translation, but that is hardly Céline’s fault.

One of the great monuments of modern literature, beyond any doubt.

A Glastonbury Romance* by John Cowper Powys (1932) [50]

This is a big, towering novel that left me stunned with its scope and ambition and above all the force of its magnificent prose. Set in the ancient numinous ("suggesting the presence of a divinity") town of Glastonbury with its venerable ruins and aura of mystery and memories of pagan beliefs, Powys creates, in this story of conflict between the spiritual and the material (the central figure is preparing a Passion Play as part of a plan to restore Glastonbury to its former position as one of the great spiritual centres of the world, while an industrial magnate plans for for industrialization and modernization of the the city), a timeless epic enfolding the distant and mysterious past - the Celts and pre-Celts, the Romans and the immemorial Grail of Glastonbury and its newer Christian significance - with the passions of the present and the portents of the future to build a work of cosmic proportions.

Powys is one of the greatest masters ever of the English language: his full, rich, smoothly flowing, expressive and inventive prose makes every page a delight to read, particularly the tremendously effective and vibrantly alive dialogues (often in the vernacular of the south-west of England) and the quite amazingly beautiful and intense descriptive passages, and he has a way of placing people in a large, very large perspective, as if we were viewing them and their actions and thoughts through an instantaneous telescope from a far-off planet, that constantly reinforces the dimensions of the work in the reader’s mind.

A treat is in store for those who have not yet had the pleasure and excitement of reading this very special novel. I just can’t find anything to begin to criticize in this extraordinary book!

Auto-da-fe by Elias Canetti (1935) [51]

A book about books, and one man’s over-riding passion for books, and book collecting, that is itself a whirlwind of words that swirl around the reader to sweep him effortlessly along to the final paroxysm of an ending that leaves one quite breathless with admiration for the force and power of this exceptional ... book.

The Master and Margarita* by Mikhail Bulgakov (1939) [52]

Words fail me when it comes to this monument of modern Russian literature - this extraordinary book probably has to be read in Russian to be fully appreciated, but it is so original and interesting and stimulating and moving, it rises to such heights of significance and aesthetic emotion that it floats above the language barrier like Shelley’s skylark winging its way ever higher and higher. I fortunately read this masterpiece in a really splendid translation into French (by Claude Levy) in a remarkable edition with extensive footnotes to explain the vast number of literary, historical and geographical references that are so important to properly appreciate the finesse and depth of the text.

No one should read this book in an edition that does not have a similarly elaborate set of explanatory critical notes - preferably as in this edition in the form of same-page footnotes because of their importance to a proper apprehension of this magnificent text.

On the Marble Cliffs by Ernst Jünger (1939) [53]

Jünger’s great poetical novel, set in a mythical and deformed but recognizable Europe, about the desperate and probably-doomed struggle of the forces of enlightenment to defend civilization against the forces of destruction and inhumanity surging out of Europe’s dark forests that are led by a charismatic, utterly determined leader known as the Great Forester. In spite of Jünger’s immense prestige as one of Germany’s most decorated First World War veterans and author of the war classic Storm of Steel (in Stahlgewittern, literally: In Steel Storms), it required great courage on his part to publish this book in the Germany of 1939.

Can be read and reread, the writing is magnificent in both the original text and the French translation with which I was already familiar - for example the remarkable opening paragraph is equally splendid in both languages.

This is one of my favourite books.

The Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck (1939) [54]

Told in a straightforward, low-key, unflowery American kind of way, this tale of suffering and strife in the depression days in the dust bowl and in the orchards of California is an American classic that has magnificently passed the test of time.

Casanova in Bolzano by Sandor Marai (1940) [55]

A particularly gifted writer - one of those who always seems to find exactly the right words to say what he or his characters want to express in the most harmonious and flowing way possible - on a huge and timeless theme: the seduction a man exercises on a woman and vice-versa. As in Arthur Schnitzler’s superb Casanova’s Journey Home on the same theme published 30 years earlier, the author explores the mindset of the most celebrated womaniser of all time, Casanova, after his spectacular escape from Venice’s central Fenice prison over St. Mark’s Square. From a superb opening scene where Casanova surprises a group of servant girls spying on him through the keyhole of his hotel room, through to the sweeping and dramatic final encounter with a past but never-forgotten conquest, the novel unfolds in a series of conversation-encounters like an extended theatre play.

Writing of the highest order, a terrific subject, drama and emotion: what more can one ask for?

Brideshead Revisited by Evelyn Waugh (1945) [56]

A faultless, frankly brilliant and subtly nostalgic evocation of the life of the upper circles in England before the social upheavals of the Second World War and the disappearance of their way of life, by one of England’s most outstanding writers of the 20th century.

La Peste by Albert Camus (1946) [57]

Camus’s great portrayal of a community - the inhabitants of the European sector of the city of Oran in Algeria - struggling to survive a sudden and deadly menace to their very existence. A parable of the struggle against the forces of destruction in all their forms, the strong moral and existential questioning that runs through the book is expressed with detachment, via brilliant dialogues and monologues, in a calm but impassioned manner that multiplies the effect and power of this grandiose work.

Camus manages to rise above the dramatic political and historical conflicts of his time to create a work of art that has as powerful an impact on the reader of today as it must have had at the time of its initial publication in 1946, although the outspoken denunciation at one point of the crimes of means-justifies-the-ends resistance fighters was not at all well received, to put it mildly, by the pro-Party arbiters of literary taste at the time.

Under The Volcano by Malcolm Lowry (1947) [58]

Mescaline misery in Mexico: not a particularly easy read, this stunning description of decline into despair is quite overwhelmingly powerful. A major reading experience, written by an inspired master of the language. But a master who is not constantly showing off what he can do with words like a certain Irish writer I could name - one who uses all the resources of the English language not just to transport you to the dry desolate depressed and depressing back-lands of Mexico in a timeless setting that could very well be the Depression days of the thirties when Lowry lived there, but to make you feel and live the heat and the despair and the whirling, wondrous relief that the expatriate European self-exile experiences while he downs yet another glass of mescaline on his descent into oblivion.

Lowry settled down in a log cabin in British Columbia for five years after leaving Mexico while he put this wild masterpiece down on paper, so it is almost a Canadian book!

Midaq Alley by Naguib Mahfouz (1947) [59]

Life in the rougher part of Cairo in the thirties told by a master of the delicate touch, a master of the art of story-telling who brings vibrantly to life the whole kaleidoscopic panorama of that unique city with ease and elegance.

The Alexandria Quartet by Lawrence Durrell (1957-60) [60]

The four novels that comprise this opus (Justine, Balthazar, Mountolive and Clea) were published separately but conceived as part of a whole, intended to be read together. The construction is brilliant, with each of the separate novels relating the point of view and life and personality of one of the interlinked characters, with the first three running more or less in parallel and the final one being a sort of sequel, thus deconstructing to great effect the linear time-line almost inherent in the novel form. The ultra-cosmopolitan setting in the multi-cultural Alexandria of the thirties and forties (and, later, the Greek islands) with its mix of populations (European and oriental) and languages (English, French, and Arab) provides a background seeped in history and culture that, with its mix of the familiar and the exotic, the understandable and the mysterious, transposes the interweaving lives of the actors in this drama to a level of universal significance.

But of course it is the writing that matters most, as I am sure you will agree, and here we have one of those masters of the language that the English educational system (Durrell was a Cambridge graduate) regularly produces. The prose is both sparkling and lively and rich in power, with particularly snappy and often witty dialogues, so reading this vast work is not only easy but enjoyable - and as a special bonus you benefit from the sophistication and articulateness of the author and his characters to soak up a bit of culture and word-wisdom while you’re at it: for example about the Grand Old Man, the great Greek poet Cavafy whose powerful poems and mysterious aura are so present throughout this magnificent work.

The Leopard by Guiseppi Tomasi di Lampedusa (1958) [61]

An impressive study of the mental turmoil of an ageing aristocrat faced with the challenge of adjusting to violent social change. We are in Sicily in 1860 and Garibaldi’s troops are approaching and the old social structure is crumbling (as Don Fabrizio’s finances have been doing for some time now) and the rats are starting to change sides and the good old days when one could despise people who have gotten rich without having been born into a prestigious family are going going and gone forever. This is the kind of sensitive, nicely-flowing saga that makes one wish one could read the text in the original. Well worthy of its reputation – and bravo master Visconti for having been so faithful to the letter and the spirit of this fine text in your masterful cinema rendering (and with what actors!) of this justly-famous modern classic.

To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee (1960) [62]

Impossible not to be captivated by this powerful account by a young girl of growing up in a sleepy Alabama town in the Depression days of the thirties – and of the tense racial relations underpinning the way things worked in the segregationist South in them those days. Relations that erupt into passion and test the mettle and moral fibre of every citizen in the town when a black man is arrested for the rape of a (rather sleazy) white girl, and the narrator’s upright father is appointed to defend the accused man. Beautifully told without militant parti pris but with a humanity and a sensitivity that are this book’s trademark, peopled by oddly original and hard-to-forget characters, addressing with honesty and openness big questions indeed, this phenomenally successful book just has to be considered one of the finest American books of the century.

Cancer Ward by Alexander Solzhenitsyn (1965) [63]

An unforgettable insight into the human condition in the Soviet Union under Stalin as seen via the filter of the conversations and biographies and internal monologues of the patients in a ward for cancer patients towards the end of Stalin’s (too-)long reign.

In Cold Blood by Truman Capote (1965) [64]

Capote’s masterpiece, this fictionalized but totally credible account of a crime that shocked North America at the time (and since - who likes the idea of their whole family being slaughtered in their beds in the middle of the night?) is as readable and relevant now as the day it was published. Because of the dialogues, it has to be catalogued as fiction, and great fiction at that.

There is only one other novel ever written that I know of that takes you so completely and intensely and convincingly into a criminal’s mind before, during and after he has committed his act (actually two very different criminals in this case) as this book, and that is Crime and Punishment.

The Siege by Ismail Kadare (1970) [65]

The Siege is an historical novel of exceptional force, recounting the siege of a strategic mountain citadel in Albania by the forces of the expanding Turkish empire in the mid-15th Century, as seen through the eyes of a Turkish chronicler accompanying the massive invasion forces, interspersed with short extracts from the journal of an Albanian defender of the besieged fortress.

Little known outside of that small but distinctive corner of Europe, this struggle of Homeric proportions lasted for twenty-five years as the Albanian defenders under the leadership of their national hero Skanderberg resisted year after year the all-out assaults by the most powerful empire in the world, fresh from its historic triumph in Constantinople, until the arrival of the fall rains each year, announced by the military drums referred to in the title of its French translation Les tambours de la pluie ("The Rain Drums"), which signalled each autumn the forced retreat of the invasion forces for the winter season and the disgrace and probable execution of the failed Turkish commander.

Appointed by the Sultan to record truthfully for posterity the coming victory, the chronicler is a cultivated and erudite member of the Turkish elite whose open mind, free-ranging conversations and alert observations give us a an objective and dispassionate but extraordinarily vivid and impressive picture of this awesome struggle.

With this view from the inside we fraternize, in a natural and almost relaxed way that immerses the reader in what just must be the authentic atmosphere of a vast military force on campaign, with the leaders and officers and rank-and-file soldiers of the many specialized corps (cavalry, archers, artillery units, assault troops, janissaries and others, notably the fearsome final-assault shock troops for whom the punishment for retreat is death) to penetrate their soldatesque façade and apprehend their individuality and their humanity while they are struggling to overwhelm the enemy citadel and impose the law of the Sultan and of Islam on this last bastion of resistance to Turkish expansion in the Balkans - even though our sympathies cannot help but lie with those on the ramparts who are offering such determined and unexpected and long-lasting resistance.

Written with finesse and intensity and a subtle sense of the infinite complexity of the forces that drive men to be what they are and to do what they do, this gripping account of a very real drama is perhaps the most flawless of Kadaré’s considerable and admirable oeuvre.

Life and Destiny by Valery Grossmann (1980) [66]

The scope of this big in every way novel is vast: the battle of Stalingrad, the mass executions of the Jewish population in German-held areas during the Second World War, civilian Russia during the forties and fifties, postwar Soviet antisemitic oppression, the moral and intellectual bankruptcy of Stalin’s regime, the goulags, the struggle of the individual to survive in the face of a faceless state bureaucracy ... the intensity, the drama, the poignancy is maintained throughout in this remarkable book whose manuscript survived in the KGB archives by miracle. Not particularly political or even anticommunist, Grossmann’s account of those tragic times sweeps you along in an effortless, natural way that is the mark of a major writer. This moving, eye-opening novel was first published in the West, 20 years after its author’s death in 1960, shortly after its completion. A great reading experience.

The War of the End of the World by Mario Vargas Llosa (1981) [67]

A sensitive, intense, very powerful fictionalized account of the massive peasant-revivalist uprising in the north-east of Brazil at the end of the 19th Century that rocked that giant country to its foundations. Vargas Llosa recreates the atmosphere of those times and the attitudes and mentalities of the actors in this epic drama by a combination of expressive language (this man is a master of words) using very many untranslatable Brazilian terms (the large glossary of these terms at the end is an essential part of the book), stylistic techniques experimented in his earlier works for getting ever deeper into the minds of his protagonists, and an art of narration that literally leaves you breathless.

This is the kind of book that you put down with regret and with tears in your eyes. It is a masterpiece.

Love and Garbage by Ivan Klima (1986) [68]

An arresting title - always a good sign, in the way that a book with a memorable first line or paragraph generally tends to live up to the promise of that enticing beginning. But like much of this rather dense work, it needs to be read carefully: the author is not associating love with garbage - those are but two of the many diverse themes that are intricately interleaved in this work by one of the foremost modern Czech writers, first published in 1986. Kafka and art and language and the Holocaust and bureaucracy and the destiny of the soul are among the myriad other themes of this book, certainly one of the most interesting to come out of Eastern Europe in the last half of the 20th Century.

The setting is Prague in the winter of the communist regime. The narrator is a writer who has taken up a job as a street cleaner to get some exposure to how the other half lives, hence the Garbage theme. He is torn between his attachment for his wife and children and his passion for another woman, an artist, hence the Love theme. A theme which, as suggested by its place in the title, is the novel’s central and indeed obsessive theme.

Be forewarned: nothing much ever really happens in this book - perhaps that is also another of its statements. The narrator wanders around the bleak cobblestone-paved streets of proletarian Prague, manually sweeping up the city’s refuse into piles to be collected by another team (!) and then sitting around chewing the fat with his workmates in cafés and bars once the day’s quota has been met, waiting for the clock to get around to the point where they can go and collect their day’s wages. He is writing a biography of Kafka and is particularly interested by the links between that writer’s tortured life and his works. In between meditations on language, on love and hate, on religion and art, on the Prague wartime ghetto and on growing old and on the nature of the soul, he observes and listens to his fellow workers and recounts his complex, intense relationships with the two women in his life, his impulsions and passions and hesitations, and attempts to understand and to explain why he is what he is and why he behaves as he does.

This is thus an introspective book - I do not think that I have ever read a book with as many pronouns "I" in it. But it is interesting, full of stimulating ideas and thoughts. In one of the many striking passages for example, the narrator recalls having read about a new 225-word language baptised "Jerkish", developed in America for communicating with chimpanzees and which has been successfully used for communicating with mentally handicapped persons. The theme of "Jerkish" becoming universally used in an Orwellian world to which it is perfectly adapted, and of the appropriation of "Jerkish" language terms in poetry and journalism and politics is recurrent throughout the book, though not always with the same bonheur. Elsewhere he recalls his youth growing up in the Jewish ghetto of Prague and the countless people he, one of the rare survivors, saw taken away to be destroyed by their Nazi oppressors.

There is a certain Central European tone to the prose, appropriately enough: the phrases are short but, often, somehow heavy if not ponderous, they are about significant subjects, they read like a translation from another language. It is in itself evocative of the drab world Klima is writing about. And the mise en page is original, with dialogues being reported indirectly, and with constant switching from one mental scene to another in juxtaposed paragraphs.

Ivan Klima is a distinctive voice from the heartland of Europe, a voice that can be listened to with much benefit.

Soul Mountain* by Gao Xingjian (1990) [69]

A young Chinese man sets out on a quest throughout the mountains of north China to delve into his country’s soul, and his own, after discovering treasures hidden in the archives of a disaffected provincial museum that had miraculously survived the ravages of the Cultural Revolution. This book is itself one of the most exciting literary discoveries of the latter part of the 20th Century, marred somewhat however, or at least it seemed to me on the first reading, by its descent from the stratospheric heights it had been cruising on to a more real-world level towards the end of the book. Conclusion: probably one of the best books of the century!

The Discovery of Heaven by Harry Mulisch (1992) [70]

A modern epic with cosmic overtones by one of Holland’s top writers, this big, ambitious book sparkles throughout in the most engaging way. Embracing big questions - science, astronomy, the religious mystique, the meaning of life, man’s place in the overall scheme of things - we move along at a good steady pace with the author’s formidable erudition and intelligence discretely tucked away in the background while we get increasingly caught up in the central character’s personal life, his intellectual questionings, and his spiritual quest that takes him on a sort of irresistible drive through to the holy city of Jerusalem and its mysteries.

All the Names by José Saramago (1997) [71]

A kind of mix between Canetti’s Autodafé and Kafka’s The Trial, this book about a librarian’s passions for books is superbly well written with a Proustian swell of long never-ending phrases, quite pregnant with significance and import. Although it is not a particularly easy novel to read, once you are caught up in the long even flood of words you will want to continue for ever, as I did. Although it tapered off somewhat towards the end from the almost spellbinding level it had been floating on, this book impressed me no end with its depth and its powerful prose where in fine every word seems to fit perfectly into place.

The Feast of the Goat by Mario Vargas Llosa (2000) [72]

This was my introduction to the works of this immensely talented author of Peruvian origins. It is a brilliant and powerful study of a modern totalitarian state with a Latin American veneer and a universal core of terror and thought control and cult of the personality, the thirty-one-year dictatorship of Rafael Trujillo in the Dominican Republic from 1930 when he took power (with the help of the US of A) to 1961, when he was assassinated.

With finesse and artistry, Vargas Llosa takes us into the minds of all of the actors in this drama: the enclosed world of this in many ways typical totalitarian state is progressively seen through the eyes of the police chiefs, of the middle-level officials, of the collaborators, of the citizens forced to collaborate in order to survive, of the rare opponents and even through the eyes of the exceptionally capable and charismatic dictator himself - a man with a spellbinding aura of personal magnetism and power whose gaze (he stares out at you from the dust-cover so that you can judge for yourself) no one was ever able to withstand.

The writing is so clean and sharp, the structure is so original and effective, the psychology of each of the successive narrators is so effortlessly and effectively portrayed, the basic existential quandary - the quasi-impossibility of resistance to an efficient totalitarianism from the inside - is so powerful and so significant, the story itself is so gripping that I was captivated and enthralled and moved from start to end by this brilliant and masterful book, many of whose scenes are forever burnt into my mind.

The Yacoubian Building by Alaa El Aswany (2002) [73]

A powerful panorama of contemporary Egypt, with a kaleidoscope of people of many different walks of life revolving around one large 1930s-style building, delivering with clarity and force – and humour and humanism - an essentially sombre picture of the mindsets of most of the citizens of that very major country and of the seemingly unstoppable rise of anti-Western attitudes and of Islamic extremism.


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Footnotes

[1Don Quichotte, Bib. de la Pléiade, 1055 p.

[2Les aventures de Simplicissimus, Fayard, 1990, 441 p. Original title: Der abenteuerliche Simplicissimus Teutch.

[3Penguin Classics, 885 p.

[4Everyman’s Library, 739 p.

[5Die Leiden des jungen Werther, Folio bilingue, 389 p.

[6Manuscrit trouvé à Saragosse, L’imaginaire Gallimard, 346 p.

[7Le Chat Murr, Phébus libretto, 494 p.

[8Aus dem Leben eines Taugenichts, Harrap, London, 1977, 144 p.

[9La peau de chagrin, Folio, 432 p.

[10Le Père Goriot, Folio classique, 436 p.

[11Le lys dans la vallée, GF Flammarion, 314 p.

[12Les trois mousquetaires, Bib. de la Pléiade, 779 p.

[13Le Comte de Monte-Cristo, Folio classique, 1449 p.

[14Everyman’s Library, 385 p.

[15Everyman’s Library, 518 p.

[16Norton Classics, 696 p.

[17Penguin Classics, 267 p.

[18Penguin Classics, 650 p.

[19Penguin Classics, 551 p.

[20Little Dorrit, Penguin Classics, 860 p.

[21Oblomov, Editions de l’Age de l’Homme, 475 p.

[22Penguin Classics, 484 p.

[23Les Misérables, Bib. de la Pléiade, 1486 p.

[24Crime et Châtiment, Bib. de la Pléiade, 613 p.

[25Penguin Classics, 910 p.

[26L’Idiot, Bib. de la Pléiade, 751 p.

[27Guerre et Paix, Bib. de la Pléiade, 1620 p.

[28Vingt mille lieus sous la mer, Folio classique, 693 p.

[29L’île mystérieuse, Le livre de poche, 807 p.

[30Anna Karénine, Bib. de la Pléiade, 882 p.

[31Les frères Karamazov, Bib. de la Pléiade, 880 p.

[32Oxford World’s Classics, 245 p.

[33Penguin Classics, 327 p.

[34La faim, Le livre de poche biblio, 285 p.

[35L’Imaginaire Gallimard, 431 p.

[36Modern Library Classics, 431 p.

[37Je suis un chat, Gallimard Unesco, 439 p.

[38Le Serpent à Plumes, 211 p.

[39Le merveilleux voyage de Nils Holgersson à travers la Suède, Actes Sud, 635 p.

[40La Sumida, Gallimard Unesco, 154 p.

[41A La Recherche du Temps Perdu, Bib. de la Pléiade, 3 tomes

[42Penguin Twentieth-Century Classics, annotated Students’ edition, 1195 p.

[43La Montagne Magique, Fayard, 772 p.

[44Le Procès, Folio, 375 p.

[45Penguin Books, 172 p.

[46Arrow Book, 216 p.

[47Vintage International, 326 p.

[48Penguin, 233 p.

[49Voyage au bout de la nuit, ed. Gallimard, 1952, 505 p.

[50The Overlord Press, 1120 p.

[51Auto-da-fé, L’imaginaire Gallimard, 560 p.

[52Le Maître et Marguerite, ed. Presses Pocket, 529 p.

[53Auf den Marmorklippen, Ullstein, 184 p.

[54Penguin Classics, 476 p.

[55La Conversation de Bolzano, Livre de Poche biblio, 285 p.

[56Penguin Books, 331 p.

[57La Peste, Folio, 279 p.

[58Penguin Classics, 385 p.

[59Anchor Books, 286 p.

[60Faber and Faber, 884 p.

[61Le Guépard, Seuil, 389 p.

[62Harper Classics, 321 p.

[63Vintage Classics, 569 p.

[64Penguin Books, 343 p.

[65Les tambours de la pluie, Folio, 322 p.

[66Vie et destin, l’Age d’Homme, 818 p.

[67La guerre de la fin du monde, Gallimard, 558 p.

[68Vintage, 222 p.

[69La Montagne de l’âme, Editons de l’Aube, 670 p.

[70La découverte du ciel, Gallimard, 683 p.

[71Tous les noms, Points Histoire, 271 p.

[72La Fête du bouc, Gallimard, 604 p.

[73L’Immeuble Yacoubian, Babel, 319 p.